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These results align with two other surveys they conducted, where participants recalled and answered questions about a recent interaction they had—this time, with someone close to them. When they reported more shared laughter (compared to unshared laughter), participants said they experienced more positive emotion and less negative emotion during the interaction, saw the person as more similar to them, and were more satisfied with the relationship. This held true even when controlling for other factors that might explain the good feelings, such as the length of the relationship and number of verbal and physical expressions of love.

This finding also jives with Algoe’s prior research , which showed that shared laughter was uniquely linked to people’s overall evaluations of quality, closeness, and social support in their relationships. In other words, it’s sharing a laugh—not just laughter, in general—that benefits relationships the most.

―Sara Algoe

How can we put these findings into practice? Algoe suggests that relationship partners may want to find opportunities to laugh together in order to boost closeness, especially before having difficult or conflict-prone conversations. Likewise, she speculates that shared laughter could be incorporated into staff meetings to make people feel more on the same page and, thereby, become more productive.

Whatever the practical implications, Algoe believes her findings further the research on laughter, showing that social context is important for evaluating its effects.

“Even if laughing on your own might have positive social outcomes, there is a missed opportunity, because laughing at the same time as someone else might be particularly potent—and influential in relationships.”

She also hopes research like hers will encourage others to study the small, everyday behaviors that help people connect better in their relationships. For example, she points to a dissertation study by one of her graduate students in which half of the everyday texts sent between people in close relationships contained shared jokes.

“We take that as a sign that shared laughter is a really important, but overlooked behavior,” says Algoe. “It may have a lot of potential for helping people grease the wheels of their relationships in everyday life.”

Jill Suttie

, is ’s book review editor and a frequent contributor to the magazine.

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Overcoming the Peter Principle
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How can subordinates improve relations with their superiors? And how can superiors help their subordinates feel comfortable in what is often a tense relationship? These questions have usually been dealt with only indirectly in management circles. Yet the relationship is so threatening to many subordinates that they react in ways that are damaging to themselves and their organizations. Drawing heavily on the work of psychologist Erik Erikson, the authors present dilemmas that commonly confront the subordinate. They point out that being aware of these dilemmas can make them more manageable and then offer advice to superiors to aid subordinates in handling such situations.

Nearly everyone in the administrative world is subordinate to someone else. Thus getting along with superiors is critical to career success.

Managers, however, tend to approach the topic only tangentially by talking about effective leadership (the other half’s responsibility in the relationship) or by striving to get out of the subordinate’s role and into the superior’s. Ignored is the fact that most managers will always be working under someone else and that being an effective subordinate is just as important a professional task as being an effective superior.

But being a subordinate means dealing with special tensions that often result in debilitating self-protective responses, as the following examples illustrate:

One might argue that all three cases are examples of ineffective subordinates whom superiors should be happily rid of. But in another sense, each of the subordinates’ actions is quite understandable as an attempt to maintain personal integrity, remain competent, or prevent embarrassment. What superior would not admit that these are legitimate needs in professional life?

The bureau in charge of designing the freighter was TsKBEM (now RKK Energia ). They began work on the design in mid-1973, assigning Progress the index 11F615A15. The design was complete by February 1974, and the first production model was ready for launch in November 1977. Progress 1 launched on 20 January 1978 aboard the same rocket used to launch the Soyuz. It still featured the same launch shroud as the Soyuz, though this was purely for aerodynamic purposes as the launch escape system had been deactivated.

This first version of Progress had a mass of 7,020kg and carried 2,300kg of cargo, or 30% of its launch mass . It had the same diameter as the Soyuz at 2.2 metres, but was 8 metres in length—slightly longer. The autonomous flight time was 3 days, the same time as that of the Soyuz ferry. It could spend one month docked. Progress always docked to the aft port of the station it was resupplying (the aft being where the main rocket engines of the station and their tankage, for refueling by the Progress, are located).

Main article: Progress-M
Progress-M logistics resupply spacecraft.

The upgraded Progress M (: 11F615A55, manufacturer's designation: 7K-TGM) was first launched in August 1989. The first 43 flights all went to ; following Mir's re-entry, Progress was used as the resupply vehicle for the Sneakers for Women On Sale White Leather 2017 65 85 Vivienne Westwood Cheap Top Quality Real Free Shipping Wiki Pre Order Sale Online Prices For Sale jppz0Bc
. As of August 2014, there have been 56 flights to the ISS and more are scheduled. [4]

The Progress M is essentially the same spacecraft as the Progress, but it features improvements based on the Soyuz T and TM designs. It can spend up to 30 days in autonomous flight and is able to carry 100kg more. Also, unlike the old Progress crafts, it can return items to Earth. This is accomplished by using the Cheap Get To Buy FOOTWEAR Laceup shoes Stella McCartney Free Shipping For Cheap With Paypal Low Price 8MIf1rQXir
capsule, which can carry up to 150kg of cargo. It is 1.5 m long and 60cm in diameter and has a " Womens Tidezo S/T Longsleeve TShirt LTB Jeans Discount Clearance Store 6V2AMDAH
" of 350kg. Progress M can also dock to the forward port of the station and still transfer fuel. It uses the same rendezvous system as the Soyuz, and it features solar panels for the first time.

Main article: Progress-M

A new modification of the Progress spacecraft, with new TsVM-101 digital flight computer and MBITS digital telemetry system, [5] was first launched on 26 November 2008, at 12:38 UTC from the Kazakhstan's Baikonur Cosmodrome spaceport aboard a Russian Soyuz rocket. The first spacecraft of this series was Progress M-01M .

The spacecraft belongs to the so-called 400 series (: 11F615A60), and all modifications applied to it were subsequently used in the production of new Soyuz-TMA-M [6] manned spacecraft.

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