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Manhattan has many great street food vendors, from the ubiquitous hot dog carts on many street corners to more specialized fare. Just be wary of food stands close to major tourist attractions; carts in Times Square and its immediate vicinity often aren't very upfront about their prices and will charge a lot more than their fellows further away. Just walking a few blocks away is often all it takes to find something more affordable. Most carts serve lunch from about 11AM to 5 or 6PM in the evening and disappear after dark, so look for a cart near you, smell what's cooking, and enjoy a hot and often tasty lunch for a few dollars (a meal costs anywhere from about $2 to $8). Mornings, from about 6AM to 10AM, the streets are dotted with coffee carts that sell coffee, croissants, bagels, and Danish pastries and are good for a cheap breakfast: small coffee and bagel for a dollar or so. From 10AM to 7PM, many vendors sell lunch and dinner choices, including hot dogs, hamburgers, gyros, and halal food like chicken kabobs. Washington Square Park, Union Square, and Madison Square Park are frequent congregation points for food trucks and more notably excellent stands.

There are many street festivals more or less centered around food, such as the Big Apple Barbecue Block Party in Madison Square Park; the celebration of Bastille Day, which occurs the weekend after July 14, on 60 St. between 5th and Lexington Avs.; the Taste of Chinatown festival; and the Ninth Avenue International Food Festival, which takes place on the first weekend after Mother's Day each year, and many run-of-the-mill street fairs. If you come across a street fair by chance, beware of the food vendors who make all their money at street festivals, because with a few exceptions, they are usually bad, and look for booths of food establishments from the area. If no sign is up with the location of the booth's store, you can ask the people at each booth where their store is; if it's far away or they don't know where it is, be wary.

Pizza-by-the-slice joints dot Manhattan and vary in quality, but usually offer a good on-the-go meal for cheap. A pricier but still quintessential New York meal is the deli sandwich, available from the many delis throughout the borough. A wide variety of Chinese options can be found in Chinatown and various other neighborhoods, there's the small Free Shipping Footlocker Finishline Mens EagleEmbroidered Cotton TShirt Marcelo Burlon Classic Brqaj1Q0
with some very good (but not necessarily cheap) restaurants, Washington Heights is the center for Dominican food, the East Village is full of Japanese eateries of various types, and part of Exclusive Clearance Fake pointed toe laceup shoes Brown Marsèll Online Store Clearance Online Ebay hHdtReP3E
is known as "Curry Hill" for its proliferation of Indian restaurants. Italian options can be found in virtually every neighborhood, although a higher number appear in the East Village and flared floral midi dress White Jason Wu Grey New Cheap Online Sale View Free Shipping Low Cost jh903SLhK
(note that Italian restaurants in "Little Italy" on Mulberry St. between Canal and Broome are mostly for tourists and tend to be overpriced).

Mental Models Thought Experiment: How Einstein Solved Difficult Problems
Reading Time: 16 minutes

“We live not only in a world of thoughts,

“All truly wise thoughts have been thought already thousands of times; but to make them truly ours, we must think them over again honestly, until they take root in our personal experience.” — Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Imagine a small town with a hard working barber. The barber shaves everyone in the town who does not shave themselves. He does not shave anyone who shaves themselves. So, who shaves the barber?

The ‘impossible barber’ is one classic example of a thought experiment – a means of exploring a concept, hypothesis or idea through extensive thought. When finding empirical evidence is impossible, we turn to thought experiments to unspool complex concepts.

In the case of the impossible barber, setting up an experiment to figure out who shaves him would not be feasible or even desirable. After all, the barber cannot exist. Thought experiments are usually rhetorical. No particular answer can or should be found.

The purpose is to encourage speculation, logical thinking and to change paradigms. Thought experiments push us outside our comfort zone by forcing us to confront questions we cannot answer with ease. They reveal that we do not know everything and some things cannot be known.

In a paper entitled Thought Experimentation of Presocratic Philosophy , Nicholas Rescher writes:

Homo sapiens is an amphibian who can live and function in two very different realms- the domain of actual facts which we can investigate in observational inquiry, and the domain of the imaginative projection which we can explore in thought through reasoning…A thought experiment is an attempt to draw instruction from a process of hypothetical reasoning that proceeding by eliciting the consequences of a hypothesis which, for anything that one actually knows to the contrary, may be false. It consists in reasoning from a supposition that is not accepted as true- perhaps even known to be false but is assumed provisionally in the interests of making a point or resolving a conclusion.

As we know from the narrative fallacy , complex information is best digested in the form of narratives and analogies. Many thought experiments make use of this fact to make them more accessible. Even those who are not knowledgeable about a particular field can build an understanding through thought experiments. The aim is to condense first principles into a form which can be understood through analysis and reflection. Some incorporate empirical evidence, looking at it from an alternative perspective.

The benefit of thought experiments (as opposed to aimless rumination) is their structure. In an organized manner, thought experiments allow us to challenge intellectual norms, move beyond the boundaries of ingrained facts, comprehend history, make logical decisions, foster innovative ideas, and widen our sphere of reference.

We are now able to determine the probability of a randomly chosen sample mean having a value at least as extreme as our original sample mean. Note that we are implicitly assuming that the null hypothesis is true. This probability is our p-value which we apply to the original problem.

Remember that, in the t-tests for differences in means, there is a condition of equal population variances that must be examined. One way to test for possible differences in variances is to do an F test. However, the F test is very sensitive to violations of the normality condition ; i.e., if populations appear not to be normal, then the F test will tend to reject too often the null of no differences in population variances.

You might like to use the following JavaScript to check your computations and to perform some statistical experiments for deeper understanding of these concepts:

The task is to decide whether to accept a null hypothesis:

H 0 = m = m 0

or to reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis:

H a : m is significantly different from m 0

The testing framework consists of computing a the t-statistics:

The above statistic is distributed as a t-distribution with parameter d.f. = n = (n-1). If the absolute value of the computed T-statistic is"too large" compared with the critical value of the t-table, then one rejects the claimed value for the population's mean.

This test could also be used for testing similar claims for other unimodal populations including those with discrete random variables , such as proportion, provided there are sufficient observations (say, over 30).

You might like to use Buy Cheap Footlocker Finishline Blue Le Mini Denim Miniskirt Frame Denim Buy Cheap Best Seller JflOPxgWE
JavaScript in checking your computations. and Sample Size Determination JavaScript at the design stage of your statistical investigation in decision making with specific subjective requirements.

You might like also to use JavaScript Testing Two Populations .

Pooled Mean: Supposed we have m number of estimates (i), of sample size n(i), for the population expected value m , the pooled estimate is:

You might like to use JavaScript Pooling the Means, and Variances .

Pooled Standard Deviation: Both the sample mean, and variance are unbiased estimates for the population parameters, m , and s 2 , respectively, however the sample standard deviation in NOT an unbiased estimate of population standard deviation s . This is so, because of an equality known as the Jensen's inequality when applied to a concave function, i.e., the square root of the unbiased variance estimate. Therefore, pooling standard deviation directly is meaningless; the best one can do to take the square root of the pooled variance

While it is often convenient to talk about a recessive allele or a dominant trait , dominance is not inherent to either an allele or its phenotype. Dominance is a relationship between two alleles of a gene and their associated phenotypes. A "dominant" allele is dominant to a particular allele of the same gene that can be inferred from the context, but it may be recessive to a third allele, and codominant to a fourth. Similarly, a "recessive" trait is a trait associated with a particular recessive allele implied by the context, but that same trait may occur in a different context where it is due to some other gene and a dominant allele.

Dominance is unrelated to the nature of the phenotype itself, that is, whether it is regarded as "normal" or "abnormal," "standard" or "nonstandard," "healthy" or "diseased," "stronger" or "weaker," or more or less extreme. A dominant or recessive allele may account for any of these trait types.

Dominance does not determine whether an allele is deleterious, neutral or advantageous. However, selection must operate on genes indirectly through phenotypes, and dominance affects the exposure of alleles in phenotypes, and hence the rate of change in allele frequencies under selection. Deleterious recessive alleles may persist in a population at low frequencies, with most copies carried in heterozygotes, at no cost to those individuals. These rare recessives are the basis for many hereditary Rta Woman Faded Midrise Skinny Jeans Mid Denim Size 29 Rta Free Shipping Shop Offer Popular Cheap Price Buy Cheap Cheap Limited Edition TPqz1I
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Dominance is also unrelated to the distribution of alleles in the population. Some dominant alleles are extremely common, while others are extremely rare. The most common allele in a population may be recessive when combined with some rare variants.

This section is about gene notations that identify dominance. For modern formal nomenclature, see Clearance Find Great Clearance Perfect Rag amp; Bone/jean Woman Leather Mini Skirt Black Size 29 Rag amp; Bone b9qkus
.

In genetics, symbols began as algebraic placeholders. When one allele is dominant to another, the oldest convention is to symbolize the dominant allele with a capital letter. The recessive allele is assigned the same letter in lower case. In the pea example, once the dominance relationship between the two alleles is known, it is possible to designate the dominant allele that produces a round shape by a capital-letter symbol R , and the recessive allele that produces a wrinkled shape by a lower-case symbol r . The homozygous dominant, heterozygous, and homozygous recessive genotypes are then written RR , Rr , and rr , respectively. It would also be possible to designate the two alleles as W and w , and the three genotypes WW , Ww , and ww , the first two of which produced round peas and the third wrinkled peas. Note that the choice of " R " or " W " as the symbol for the dominant allele does not pre-judge whether the allele causing the "round" or "wrinkled" phenotype when homozygous is the dominant one.

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